# Questions tagged [mediation]

A mediator is a variable that plays an intermediate role in a causal chain. Ie, the 1st variable in the chain causes the mediator, which in turn causes the 3rd variable. Partial mediation is when the 1st variable causes the 3rd both through the mediator & directly.

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### Mediation analyses in multilevel modeling?

I'm working on data analysis for a pretty complex dataset and I'm stuck. We have collecting data about a bunch of situations. So there are "situation-level" variables (repeated measures which vary by ...

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### What type of variable am I dealing with?

I'm researching the relationship between Gender and environmental voting behaviours in the USA, specifically looking at the environmental voting behaviours of members of Congress This is measured ...

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### If I control for country effects and results are significant, can I conclude generalizability of results?

I am working on a mediated model where M mediates the relationship between X and Y and I have one control variable. The data I am using is from 3 different countries with different sample sizes (46, ...

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### Relation between causal mediation model and regular GLM in R

In the vignette for the 'mediation' R package (http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/mediation/vignettes/mediation.pdf), the authors state that when "the outcome is binary all estimated effects are ...

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### Mediation Analysis with categorical predictor and multiple mediators

I am relatively new to statistics but I need it for my master thesis.
I have the following situation:
In my study, I investigated the effect of different Layouts on the understandability of diagrams. ...

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### Mediation regression

I am trying to find the relationship between audit partner rotation on audit quality mediated by audit fees. My third hypothesis which tests the mediation is this: DA = b0 +b1*PROT + b2*LNAUFEE. DA is ...

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### Understanding the Johnson-Neyman algorithm for finding the region of significance in a trivariate correlation analysis

I'm pretty new to the whole statistics world, so excuse me for being a novice in advance. I'm trying to understand Andrew F. Hayes's PROCESS macro in SPSS [1]. To my best understanding, the macro uses ...

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### Requirements for calculating a mediation analysis

I would like to calculate a mediation analysis using the macro PROCESS by Hayes.
However, I cannot find any evidence about the pre-requisites that are needed to be tested before calculating a ...

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### Interpreting total, direct and indirect effects in SEM

I'm running a SEM model with one mediator variable (cognitive ability). Using lavaan I report within the code the indirect and total effects to test them. However, I have some doubts on how to ...

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### How to specify a categorical moderator variable with 3 categories in a ModMed model using mediation package

I need help to model a Moderated Mediation problem. My X(IV), Y(DV) and Mediation Variable (M) are numeric and continuous. Moderator variable (W) is categorical with 3 categories and is used with IV.
...

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### Should group mean centring impact results of a multilevel mediation?

I'm currently writing up results from a multilevel model of my study and have come across an issue and was hoping for your help. Essentially, when running my mediation model using lmer and mediation ...

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### Complimentary mediation but not significant total effect

As I read Hayes' book for "process", I got a curious and arguable question about an example in the book.
the situation is,
the total effect is NOT significant
there is JUST one mediator
the indirect ...

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### Regression Equation with a Mediator

I've done linear regression with three interval variables that meets Baron and Kenny's standards for mediation.
I'm interested in generating a regression equation that can be applied to a second data ...

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### Interpretation of indirect effect in SEM

Ancillary units have lesser probability of accessing formal finance (-0.027). But, through profitability, the indirect effect Ancillary unit has on Formal Funding is positive and significant at 1% ...

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### Why the mediated effect is the result of the multiplication between the slope of IV to mediator and the slope of mediator to DV?

My question is, why the average causal mediated effect (ACME) can be calculated as the two coefficients that represent the slope from the independent variable to the mediator (simple regression model) ...

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### Mediated Moderation or Moderated Mediation?

let's say I have two groups (variable G) and another variable such as stress (variable M). The two groups differ within stress. Now I want to examine how the relationship between freetime (variable X) ...

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### Mediation Analysis with Interaction of Mediators

I am not an expert in mediation analysis or structural equation modelling. I looked in the standard reference for mediation analysis (i.e., Hayes) and searched the forum and internet a bit and could ...

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### Mediation with hierarchical regression using STATA

I had run the mediation test using hierarchical regression.
My sample is comprised of two years of data with a total of 976 companies.
Question:
Do I need to run the bootstrap in the mediation ...

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### How to intrepret one significant and one insignificant mediator and a significant direct effect in PROCESS?

I have conducted a mediation analysis with two mediators using PROCESS.
My findings are that in X -- a --> M1 -- b --> Y, a and b are significant.
However in X -- c --> M2 -- d --> Y, only d is ...

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### Mediation analysis with all binary variables

I am seeking to run a mediation analysis on a dataset in which the outcome variable, the mediation variable and the main input variable are all binary. Is this going to be possible? If so would anyone ...

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### Bootstrapping for mediation in multilevel model with binary outcome

I am trying to do a mediation analysis with a multilevel model, where the outcome is binary and the predictor and mediator are continous. I wanted to do bootstrapping and then comparison of confident ...

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### Hayes Mediation Tables with binary outcome variable

I am trying to put together mediation tables for my study which has a binary outcome variable. Normally, I report the R-squared and F statistics for my mediation model. However, SPSS Process does not ...

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### Significant total and indirect effect but insignificant direct effect [duplicate]

I was trying to use a simple mediation model (the classic triangular model) to test my hypothesis. However, my data exhibited a significant total effect and a total indirect effect, with the direct ...

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### R mediation package: Different outcomes depending on treatment and moderator

I recently ran some moderated mediation analyses with the R package mediation. The code was as follows:
...

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### How to run a moderated multilevel mediation in R?

I am trying to run a moderated multilevel mediation in R. I have encountered the mlma and bmlm packages, as well as Elizabeth Page-Gould's open-source code for testing indirect effects in multi-level ...

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### Multiple Linear Regression with Mediator in SPSS

My variables (all continuous):
IVs: Secondary Traumatic Stress and Vicarious Traumatization
DV: PTSD
Mediator: Social Support
I checked the correlations between the variables and they are all ...

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### Mediation analysis Baron and Kenny

I would be very grateful if someone could advise me as to why the indirect effect in this type of mediation analysis is made up of the product of a and b as opposed to the sum of a and b.
Thank you ...

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### Interpretation of Total Effects, Direct Effects and Indirect Effects (Pearl, 2012)

Pearl (2012) introduced a Mediation Formula to assess mediation effects in non-linear models. I would like to ask how to interpret the results if the Total Effect (TE) is negative, but both the Direct ...

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### Question about the direction in mediation analysis

My question is about mediation analysis and I am new to this statistical technique. In mediation analysis we usually assume following relationship,
So we want to test whether the relationship ...

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### Mediator variable turn insignificant in the c' relationship

Dear all,
I am currently running a mediation analysis and I'm running into some trouble interpretting the insignificance of the variables.
- When running a regression for path A, this is significant ...

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### Mediation analysis in R not showing values for treatment/control group

I'm using the mediate function in the mediation package to carry out my analysis. However, when I run my code, I do not get ...

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### In stepwise regression, how to interpret non-significant variables? [duplicate]

I have more than 15 IVs such as age, gender, education, first language, technology proficiency, health condition, etc, and one of my DVs is health literacy level, which is measured through a standard ...

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### How to do within group moderation analysis without subsetting data

Let's say I run the following regression specification:
lm(outcome ~ treatment)
Where treatment is a factor variable that can take four values ...

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### How does Mediation Analysis Account for Covariates

Can anyone explain how mediation analysis accounts for covariates?
For example, when I run a simple mediation analysis with X predicting Y mediated with M -- what happens when I specificy PROCESS ...

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### Mediation Analysis Adjusting for Covariates

I am attempting to perform a simple mediation model.
I must include covariates to control for Y (the outcome).
Already we have determinants for this outcome Y (age, gender, BMI, Race). These "...

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### Is it ok to use control variables in a moderator/interaction analysis in experimental design?

I have a question concerning the inclusion of control variables into my research. I have data from an experimental, randomly distributed social protection program.
I want to test whether a moderating ...

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### What are the best techniques for mediation analysis?

I am running a model of the following form:
lm(outcome ~ treatment) in which I cluster standard errors at the participant level.
I ask respondents at the end of ...

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### Mediation analysis for multilevel repeated measures designs?

I have a burning question regarding mediation analysis for multilevel repeated measures designs. I have a design in which groups of three participants (multilevel) discussed one time FtF and one time ...

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### Mediation and centering

I am running a mediation model with 2 interaction terms (gender x happiness and gender x hours spent working per week) and one dependent term (income). I am wondering if I should mean center these ...

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### Getting significant between effects in mediation despite low ICC

I am interested in examining between effects using lmer in a mediation model using mediation and within effects using ...

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### Using the PROCESS macro to analyse mediation in a longitudinal data set with three points

I am investigating whether a parenting program reduces child anxiety via improving parenting practices. Initially, I answered this research question with two time points of data. After submitting the ...

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### Questions about the mediation analysis of ordinal logistic regression

I have two questions about mediation analysis in R.
First, I have three variables, Group_A (X), Group_B (mediator), Group_C (Y), and all of them also have three levels, 1 2 3. When I run the below R ...

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### Should I compute my scales by averaging or total score?

I am conducting a research involving a serial mediation analysis using Hayes's Process (Model 6). Should I compute my scales by average or by total score? It doesn't make a difference considering ...

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### Evaluating mediator effect, through SEM model selection with AIC [duplicate]

I am new to SEM and the lavaan R package, so perhaps this is a basic question.
I have social media data with three variables:
...

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### PROCESS macro or SEM for mediation model with latent variables

I am conducting a survey to analyze the effect of a binary variable X on a latent variable Y. The effect is assumed to be mediated by another latent variable M. Moreover, the effect of X on M is ...

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### Mediation analysis if I have 2 mediators

What mediation analysis should I use if I have two proposed mediators for my intervention, and want to account for the time factor?

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### Dummy variables in two-way ANOVA

I do not understand how to use dummy variables and the statistics underlying them. I don't need to apply this or use it in SPSS or any software.
I do know that they can be used for categorical ...

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### Interpreting coefficients in a regression model for a two-level categorical IV [closed]

I'm running a moderated mediation analysis in SPSS. However, I face some difficulties interpreting the results. I have one independent variable which has two levels (emotional and rational). Since I ...

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### How to assess whether the couples are significantly more correlated with their partners than other study participants?

I am looking for statistic advise.
I have a small sample (86 participants) of which 30 are husband and wife (15 couples) and the rest are either single or have a partner but the partner is not in the ...